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2    The Current and New Model for the Force Fields

2.1    The Current Model for the Force Fields

Here, we give only a brief and synoptic review.  This is for two reasons: 1) to show how many of the current theories of physics tie nicely into the new theory, and 2) so that maximum space in the paper can be given to the rational, and important, experimental validations of the new theory.  There will only be space in this paper for a few important validations, and some application opportunities will also be shared.

The general model now being used to describe the gravitational field is that the waves are transverse to the direction of propagation of the gravitational energy.  As predicted by Einstein, the energy travels at the velocity of light.  No experiments have been able to directly measure gravitational waves, but from the interaction of gravitational waves between a binary pulsar pair, Professor Joseph Taylor (Princeton U.) was able to confirm Einstein's prediction that gravitational energy travels at the velocity of light.

From the effective mass of a photon, m = hv/c2 (h is Planck's constant, v is the frequency of the electromagnetic energy of the photon, and c is the velocity of light), Einstein predicted a very slight interaction of photons with gravitational fields, and this was first measured as light photons were observed being bent as they passed by the gravitational field of the sun.  Many additional experiments followed supporting this interaction between electromagnetic radiation and gravitational fields.

As we know, electromagnetic energy is heart and core to both our society's existence as well as to most of the technological progress we have made. These waves, traveling at the speed of light, are transverse.  They have been measured in a plethora of ways, and through Maxwell's equations describe much of what we see and feel -- all the way from the energy radiated from the sun to the light bulb in our house and the signal propagated down our telephone line and throughout the power grids of the world.  All of telecommunications, navigation, and the computer industry are prime examples of how electromagnetic energy is utilized to benefit society.

The weak and strong force fields of nuclear reactions have been studied extensively since the discovery of the atomic bomb.  It is, of course, well known that large amounts of high energy electromagnetic radiation and particles come forth from these reactions -- giving important relationships between these last two force fields and the emitted electromagnetic photons. Here, Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is key to our understanding, where "E" is the energy inherent within the mass "m."

The energy associated with a photon is "E = hv".  Hence, we have the very important and powerful relationship in the conversion of electromagnetic energy into mass or vis-a-versa: mc = hv.  The very high frequency x- rays and gamma rays emitted from nuclear reactions are a direct result of these mass conversions into photons during fission or fusion reactions.

2.2    The New Model for Force Fields

The new equations below will be explained for this new model -- along with fundamental particle and photon interactions consistent with this new model. Then, to illustrate, sundry experiments will be outlined which demonstrate the interactions and relationships between the known fields.  Many of these experiments have already been done or are a part of past observations.  The new theory gives explanations which were heretofore either not understood or were rather ambiguous in the models used to attempt their descriptions.

2.2.1    The new model for the gravitational field

For example, for a sphere the gravitational field lines are along radii and would appear, if they could be seen visually, somewhat like the spins on a spiney urchin as they emanate out from the center of the sphere.  More descriptively, they would have the shape of a "diatom" with the field lines appearing to fan out like the shape of a ball bat.  These lines -- fanning out from the mass center -- are called diallel, gravitational-field lines or diallel lines.  All of the force fields interact with these diallel lines, and they provide a conduit for particles, photons, gravitational energy.  As the DNA is to living organisms -- carrying and retaining information, so are these diallel lines for any mass object, such as the earth, for example.

Though electromagnetic signals (photons) and atomic particles traverse across these diallel gravitational field lines with the well known patterns of behavior, in this new theory there is also a force to cause them to flow along these diallel lines.  These diallel lines are fundamental to this new unified field theory.  A classic example is when a nuclear explosion takes place. Large amounts of electromagnetic energy and high velocity particles are emitted from the reactions and follow along these diallel lines.  The well known stem of the mushroom cloud dramatically illustrates this effect.

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