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A Unified Field Theory and some Experimental Evidence

David W. Allan, Ranae Lee and Jeff Lorbeck
December, 1999
(Early Final Edition, not final, and not public)


1 Introduction
1.1 Basic Concepts
List of Validations and/or Applications
1.2 Combining the Force Fields
2 The Current and New Model for the Force Fields
2.1 The Current Model for the Force Fields
2.2 The New Model for Force Fields
2.2.1 The new model for the gravitational field
3 The Fundamental Field Equation
3.1 Density Dependence, D
3.2 Parallel Component (A2)
4 Characteristics of Equation (1)
4.1 Density and Energy relationship
4.2 Behavior of Particles in the Unified Field Theory
4.2.1 Behavior of Electrons
4.2.2 Behavior of Protons
4.2.3 Behavior of Neutrons
4.2.4 Behavior of Photons
4.3 Quantum-mechanical Concepts and Diallel Gravitational Field Lines
5 Experimental Verification of the Theory
5.1 Atomic Bomb Reaction
5.2 A Simple Kitchen Experiment -- the magic of an egg
5.3 Core Heating of the Earth
5.4 Anti-gravity
5.5 Tesla's Earth Pumping Radio-Frequency Experiment
5.6 Jumping on a Trampoline
5.7 An Electron Wheel to Measure Diallel Field Lines
5.8 Aurora Borealis and the Earth's Magnetic Field
5.9 Liquid Nitrogen simulation of Aurora Borealis
5.10 Blue Jets, Red Sprites and Elfs
5.11 Sunspot Activity, Magnetic Fields and Planetary Positions
5.12 Alignment of the Planets, 5 May 2000
5.13 Solution to a Space Mystery

1    Introduction

1.1    Basic Concepts

The new unified field theory presented herein offers a different way of modeling the gravitational field.  This new theory shows how the known force fields work together.  We have studied numerous past experimental validations and propose a variety of additional experiments that could be performed that would validate this new theory.  If the theory is valid, it has very far reaching implications as well as application opportunities that could provide significant benefit to society.

The applications cover a large number of disciplines, and there will not be space in this paper to develop how all of these tie in to this new theory. Additional information, for those interested, is available on the web site [].  To date we have 32 such experiments or novel explanations, which have already been done, or they are observables of past experience.  In addition, we list 13 additional potential experiments -- some with potentially important areas of application.  Our hope is that this new theory will be investigated by experts in each of the listed areas, and that they will participate in the pioneering of this new theory as these experimental suggestions are researched.  Toward this end, for those colleagues desiring to join in the research, we are publishing the basic ideas and thought processes to understand the theory before it is fully developed. Also, we are not experts in many of the disciplines where opportunities lie. Experts in each area could perhaps better test the theory and come up with additional opportunities for research or application.  We see the potential for thousands of theses.  It will take the efforts of many as truth validation and application are pursued in cooperation.  The following, beginning, list includes past, in process, and future activities, which validate or would validate this new unified field theory.

This is a List of Validations and/or Applications.  Those items with a leading "[o]" are marked to indicate future experiments.

  1. Provides a basic unified field theory equation and the mechanism of how the known force fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, and the strong and weak nuclear) interact and work together
  2. Explanation of why a nuclear (or very large) explosion has associated with it a column (stem of the mushroom cloud)
  3. Explanation of why the stem of a mushroom cloud extends beyond the mushroom into space to inordinate heights if the explosion is extremely large -- like the thermonuclear fusion hydrogen bomb explosions (called Mike and Bravo) set off in the Pacific of 10.5 and 15 Megatons of TNT equivalent, respectively
  4. Explanation of why on some occasions the stem of the mushroom cloud shrinks inward -- emitting photons as it does so
  5. Predicts that immediately after the time of a nuclear explosion, radiation will be emitted to the core of the earth, where much of it is reflected, and onto the opposite side of the earth (Fortunately for humans, most of the test sites have been opposite large bodies of water, though some unreported repercussions may have occurred with ocean life on the opposite side.)
  6. Explains and predicts significant earth core heating resulting from the accumulated effect of nuclear explosions with spin off characteristics of ocean warming and ozone thinning
  7. Explains the mechanism of core heating of the earth
  8. Provides a mechanism for why the earth has a magnetic field and how and why it can change
  9. Explains the mechanism for the colors in the Aurora Borealis and why it occurs
  10. Explains why Aurora Borealis is more active, in general, than Aurora Australis.
  11. [o]   Provides a simple laboratory experiment using liquid nitrogen to simulate the Aurora Borealis at the North Pole
  12. Explains why Tesla's radio-frequency experiment using the earth as a resonator worked as it did
  13. Explains how whales communicate over very long distances using ULF frequencies
  14. Explains how fireflies remain in synchronism over significant distances -- out of sight of each other
  15. Provides additional explanation for the nature of lightning
  16. Explains much of the phenomena that occurs above intense lightning storms known as "elfs," "blue jets" and "red sprites," only documented within this decade
  17. Provides a mechanism for the coupling between the angular momentum of the Earth's atmosphere and the rotation rate of the earth, which have been observed to be correlated with near zero lag time
  18. Explains why, in part, the static-friction coefficient is typically greater than the dynamic-friction coefficient
  19. Models and predicts the intensity of the sun spot cycles and when the maxima and minima will be
  20. Shows the importance of planetary alignments with the sun, electron flow from the sun, and the dynamics of the magnetic fields of the sun and of the planets as they tie directly to sunspot activity
  21. [o]   The astronomy community predicts no significant effects from the planetary alignment during the first part of May 2000.  Others predict disastrous effects.  This new theory predicts some effects, which includes the possibility of increased radio and electromagnetic transmission interference, the possibility of increased whether activity, the possibility of increased volcanic and earthquake activity, the Aurora Borealis should be large as also for Jupiter and Saturn (except that they will be on the opposite side of the sun from the earth at that time, and will be difficult to observe).  Actually, Jupiter and Saturn line up with the sun around 13 June 2000, which is more significant according to this new theory than the general alignment talked about in May.  Jupiter and Saturn are both slightly inclined in their orbits to the earth's ecliptic plane, and at that time they will be 2.5 degrees apart due to their different inclinations.
  22. Explains why magnetic pole reversals occur in the Sun about every 11 years, and why they occur in the planets as well -- including the earth
  23. Provides a fundamental insight into how and why gravitational fields can be modified, focused and defocused
  24. [o]   Provides a mechanism for constructing an anti-gravity device
  25. [o]   Provides a means of using laser beams to study the profile of the moon
  26. [o]   Provides a unique mechanism, along the lines of Tesla's work, for sending laser signals through the earth and determining the mass center to a very high accuracy.
  27. Provides additional explanation as to why people derive health benefits from jumping on a rebounder (mini-trampoline)
  28. Explains why an egg can be stood on end and remain stable with perturbations present -- even against a perfectly smooth hard surface and with the egg being smooth as well
  29. [o]   Provides a simple mechanism for testing an aspect of this new theory by measuring the RF field of an egg when erect and when on its side as electrons move up and down along the vertical diallel gravitational field lines (see explaination of diallel in section 2.2.1)
  30. Provides additional explanation of the behavior of plant growth
  31. [o]   Provides a simple experiment for aligning seeds along a vertical axis as a validation of this new theory
  32. Explains why after jumping on a trampoline there is the strong tendency for a person's hair to stand out
  33. Provides an explanation of why the images observed in Kirlian photography are thus
  34. [o]   Opens the opportunity for the construction of an "electron-wheel" device which will be very important in measuring the behavior of the gravitational field on the earth or in space
  35. Opens up additional perspectives in the explanation of and behavior of "Black-holes"
  36. Explains why -- on those occasions when the stem of a nuclear explosion mushroom cloud collapses inward -- it turns black.  This is a miniature example of a process that occurs in a black-hole
  37. [o]   Opens the opportunity for validation experiments using electrons, protons and photons
  38. Gives additional importance to the role of neutrons in the balance of nature's forces
  39. Explains the dark bands going out from the sun as observed, for example, during the 11 August 1999 eclipse
  40. Explains the spokes going out radially from Saturn -- observed during the Voyager I encounter -- as the diallel gravitational field lines emanating from that planet being traversed by electrons (as explained below), which were interacting with particles in band-B of Saturn's rings
  41. Explains why satellites, reported by NASA JPL, appear to be heavier than current gravitational theory would account for
  42. [o]   Provides a simple experiment to explain why satellites may appear heavier at times
  43. [o]   Provides an experiment to observe distortions in the local vertical and effects on the period of a pendulum in the immediate proximity of a power transformer station
  44. [o]   Provides an experiment which will give a direct measurement of the relationship between energy of a system and the gravitational attraction, which will also provide an improved value of the Universal Gravitational constant, "G"
  45. Explains why significant variations exist in the estimation of the masses of the planets and of the sun -- depending on how and when the measurements were made
  46. [o]   Suggests an experiment which will find a correlation of the orbit periods of the moons of planets with the energy-density of same
  47. Opens the possibility for a fifth and most important force field -- resulting in an extremely important harmonization of the other force fields

As can be seen from the above list, one of the most encouraging aspects of this new theory is that it provides explanations for many phenomena in nature, which heretofore were not well explained.  Because of space, we will only give a few examples in the text.  Additional information is obtainable from the web-site [].  Even more encouraging are the application opportunities and what they can mean to society.

Having the correct model is key to understanding.  We have the famous historical story of how difficult a time the astronomers had in modeling the position of the planets until the work of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.  The previous model assumed that the earth was the center of the universe.  Given this model, the Greek name for the planets (meaning wanderers) was well deserved -- as no one could predict well their future positions.

Based on the accurate observations of Tycho Brahe, Kepler deduced his three laws of planetary motion, and they were like a fresh breath of air for the modeling and the predicting of planetary motion.  To this day, these laws are very useful.

The technological advancement and the scientific understanding gained since Kepler's era have provided society with the countless blessings of modern technology, but with significant challenges coming from by-products of these inventions and their applications.  This new theory opens up significant hope for reducing or eliminating many of the pollutants that currently plague the world community.

1.2    Combining the Force Fields

The four known force fields in nature are gravitational, electromagnetic, and the strong and week nuclear forces.  This new unified field theory combines these forces into a harmonious working set of relationships.  This was one of the main goals of Einstein before he died, and many have worked on this since. Here, we only introduce this new theory without a full set of working equations.  These yet need to be developed by the theoreticians.

Understanding how these four force fields tie together provides significant physical insight and opens up opportunities for extremely important applications for the benefit of society.  This better allows one to work with nature so that by-products of these technological developments will minimize potentially harmful effects.

This new unified field theory illustrates the harmony of the fundamental force fields and most of the commonly accepted laws of nature.  We present herein a new model, which opens up new perspectives because it provides a different way of viewing the laws of nature.  It also opens the way to a fifth force field, which is consistent with recent findings, and which is the governing force field in a harmonious, well-ordered universe.


The Current and New Model for the Force Fields

2.1    The Current Model for the Force Fields

Here, we give only a brief and synoptic review.  This is for two reasons: 1) to show how many of the current theories of physics tie nicely into the new theory, and 2) so that maximum space in the paper can be given to the rational, and important, experimental validations of the new theory.  There will only be space in this paper for a few important validations, and some application opportunities will also be shared.

The general model now being used to describe the gravitational field is that the waves are transverse to the direction of propagation of the gravitational energy.  As predicted by Einstein, the energy travels at the velocity of light.  No experiments have been able to directly measure gravitational waves, but from the interaction of gravitational waves between a binary pulsar pair, Professor Joseph Taylor (Princeton U.) was able to confirm Einstein's prediction that gravitational energy travels at the velocity of light.

From the effective mass of a photon, m = hv/c2 (h is Planck's constant, v is the frequency of the electromagnetic energy of the photon, and c is the velocity of light), Einstein predicted a very slight interaction of photons with gravitational fields, and this was first measured as light photons were observed being bent as they passed by the gravitational field of the sun.  Many additional experiments followed supporting this interaction between electromagnetic radiation and gravitational fields.

As we know, electromagnetic energy is heart and core to both our society's existence as well as to most of the technological progress we have made. These waves, traveling at the speed of light, are transverse.  They have been measured in a plethora of ways, and through Maxwell's equations describe much of what we see and feel -- all the way from the energy radiated from the sun to the light bulb in our house and the signal propagated down our telephone line and throughout the power grids of the world.  All of telecommunications, navigation, and the computer industry are prime examples of how electromagnetic energy is utilized to benefit society.

The weak and strong force fields of nuclear reactions have been studied extensively since the discovery of the atomic bomb.  It is, of course, well known that large amounts of high energy electromagnetic radiation and particles come forth from these reactions -- giving important relationships between these last two force fields and the emitted electromagnetic photons. Here, Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is key to our understanding, where "E" is the energy inherent within the mass "m."

The energy associated with a photon is "E = hv".  Hence, we have the very important and powerful relationship in the conversion of electromagnetic energy into mass or vis-a-versa: mc = hv.  The very high frequency x- rays and gamma rays emitted from nuclear reactions are a direct result of these mass conversions into photons during fission or fusion reactions.

2.2    The New Model for Force Fields

The new equations below will be explained for this new model -- along with fundamental particle and photon interactions consistent with this new model. Then, to illustrate, sundry experiments will be outlined which demonstrate the interactions and relationships between the known fields.  Many of these experiments have already been done or are a part of past observations.  The new theory gives explanations which were heretofore either not understood or were rather ambiguous in the models used to attempt their descriptions.

2.2.1    The new model for the gravitational field

For example, for a sphere the gravitational field lines are along radii and would appear, if they could be seen visually, somewhat like the spins on a spiney urchin as they emanate out from the center of the sphere.  More descriptively, they would have the shape of a "diatom" with the field lines appearing to fan out like the shape of a ball bat.  These lines -- fanning out from the mass center -- are called diallel, gravitational-field lines or diallel lines.  All of the force fields interact with these diallel lines, and they provide a conduit for particles, photons, gravitational energy.  As the DNA is to living organisms -- carrying and retaining information, so are these diallel lines for any mass object, such as the earth, for example.

Though electromagnetic signals (photons) and atomic particles traverse across these diallel gravitational field lines with the well known patterns of behavior, in this new theory there is also a force to cause them to flow along these diallel lines.  These diallel lines are fundamental to this new unified field theory.  A classic example is when a nuclear explosion takes place. Large amounts of electromagnetic energy and high velocity particles are emitted from the reactions and follow along these diallel lines.  The well known stem of the mushroom cloud dramatically illustrates this effect.

3    The Fundamental Field Equation

The following equation is fundamental in understanding how the four force fields interact and come together for this new unified field theory:

D = (E/cG) / Pi(sub2)

where D is the relativistic density, E is the energy of the unified field, c is the velocity of light, G is the universal gravitational constant, and the last part of the equation, / A2*, will be explained below.  D and E are tensors with eigenvalues and quantum states associated therewith.

*"A2" should read "capital Pi, sub-2"

3.1    Density Dependence, D

The density is the dependent variable; changes in the energy (energy flow in and out of a region) cause changes in the density.  For example, the energy flow to and/or away from any space-time continuum along the gravitational diallel lines determines the corresponding change in the density in that space-time continuum.  Appreciating the energy field at the particle as well as in a region is central to the understanding of this theory.  The energy can come from any of the force fields.  For example, both equations apply: E = mc2, where m is the relativistic mass and E = hv, where "h" is Planck's constant "v" is the electromagnetic frequency of the photon.

Energy can come from the other force fields as well.  Later we will see some spectacular and very important examples of this interplay of the force fields.

3.2    Parallel Component (A2)

A dimensional analysis of the above equation reveals that A2 has dimensions of length, time and mass as the four known fields interact.  The forward slash "/" denotes being parallel in the unified field theory's mass-space-time continuum. The "sub-2" on the "A" denotes that part parallel for the receiver in the space-time continuum with respect to the energy emitted by the transmitter along diallel lines in its environment or region.

Combining the energy with this term we have E/Pi2.  Hence, we see that this denotes the energy per mass, per length and per time taken in the parallel direction of the local diallel lines.  The quantity in the denominator of equation(1), cG, is the normalizing factor, so that the dependent variable, D, is the density factor taken in the parallel direction of the diallel lines.  It is the density that is the final determining factor for the force fields -- the four known fields plus a fifth.

The subscript "sub-2" denotes the receiver of the energy field.  Since the change in the source of the energy field is implied to be the initiator of the density change, it is implied as being "sub-1."  Thus, the reason for no subscript on the energy, E, and the resulting density, D.


4    Characteristics of Equation (1)

4.1    Density and Energy relationship

The dependent variable "D" can also be taken as density of matter in the usual sense: mass per unit volume.  But in general, "D" is a tensor description as the dependant variable resulting from that part of the energy tensor, "E," given by the parallel part A2, as will be described later.

This equation has application at both the particle level as well as the macroscopic level.  For example, we may conceptualize a particle placed in a quantized energy field, which field can come from any of the force fields.  A particle interacts with this combined field to determine its density (quantum state, for example).  One may think of it as an energy pressure: the greater the energy the greater the density.

The constant of proportionality is 1/cG.  The speed of light, c, is also the speed of gravitational waves.  The velocity of light squared, c2, is also the proportionality constant in the conversion of mass into energy, since E = mc2.  Of course, 1/c2 is the proportional constant in the opposite conversion of energy into mass, since m = E/c2.

The universal gravitational constant, G, logically is needed to tie the gravitational field to the other energy fields. We see that the density, D, has great significance in this new theory.

4.2    Behavior of Particles in the Unified Field Theory

4.2.1 Behavior of Electrons

A free electron, with no other outside forces, naturally spirals downward along a diallel gravitational field line toward the mass center -- reminiscent of the appearance of the DNA structure.  It spirals clockwise as one looks down along this diallel line, and while so traveling it can exist in one of several quantum states.  It will emit or absorb photons as it changes from one quantum state to another similar to what naturally happens within atoms and molecules.  One has direct evidence of this in the Aurora-Borealis with complementary spin directions of the electrons in the diallel lines and in the magnetic field of the earth, and some of the quantum states are evidenced by the multiple colors of photons emitted during this phenomenon.

In this simple model for the electron, one observes that there are two forces: 1) gravitational -- pulling the electron, as it spirals along this diallel gravitational field line, toward the mass center, and 2)the attraction keeping it in its quantum state with respect to a particular diallel line.  Its quantized-spiral energy state is determined by the energy field in which it finds itself.  This will become evident in some experimental examples -- given later.

From this new theory, we learn that when an electron reaches the mass origin (such as the center of the earth, for example), its energy typically contributes to core heating in different ways.  At the center of the earth, a controlled fission process is on going.  These entering electrons can contribute to a variety of nuclear reactions.  If a high energy electron combines with an available proton -- creating a neutron -- then a large quantum of photon energy is necessary to make up the mass deficit; this process is part of the cooling stabilization necessary for core equilibrium. There is a change in momentum as it reverses its direction of spiraling and starts up a diallel line. Significant heating takes place at the center of the earth, for example, as a result of this reversal because of the enormous net number of electrons that flow through the center of the earth -- maintaining the earth's magnetic field.

Since free electrons are in much greater abundance than most any other atomic particles, their behavior is of primary interest. They are the principal "food" from the sun for the earth. Since they carry a negative charge, and they are extremely light, they become a very useful tool for experimentation and verification of the theory.  We will see this in the experimental section.

Because electrons repel other electrons, the earth has a significant shell of high electron density at the surface of the earth. This is like the surface tension for water; this shell creates a barrier, but is penetrable.  After an electron enters the earth along a diallel line with a sufficient velocity to penetrate the electrostatic force at the shell, it will continue along a diallel line to the center of the earth and out on the opposite side with no net effect from the electron shell, if it does not interact with the fission process at the core, or if it is not reflected by the core.

For a homogeneous sphere, these diallel lines are along diameters and are straight in a non-rotating frame of reference.  In a rotating frame, they will appear curved as do light beams.  This must be accounted for in experiments using the rotating earth as the platform.

4.2.2    Behavior of Protons

Since protons are usually bound in atoms and/or molecules, their abundance is much less than that of electrons.  In nuclear reactions, free protons are emitted, as they are from the sun, in great abundance.  Since they are about 2,000 times more massive than an electron and they have a positive charge, their behavior is significantly different, but similar in important details.

A free proton interacting with a diallel gravitational field line will also naturally spiral downward toward the mass origin of the diallel line.  It, however, will spiral counter-clock-wise and also in a quantized state. Similar to the electron, it will interact with the particles at the origin -- providing energy and affecting their density -- also according to equation 1. The proton will also reverse its spiral direction at the mass center.  Given its much larger cross section, its probability of arriving at the center of the earth is greatly reduced.  If protons are emitted from the core, they continue to spiral in the opposite direction of that of the electrons (counter-clockwise as viewed from above).

For the earth, the penetration depth of a proton is negligibly small, because basically all it sees is electrons -- to which it is immediately attracted -- making hydrogen, which then joins with another hydrogen atom to make a hydrogen molecule or implodes with oxygen to make water.  The fact that we don't see a large amount of this activity indicates that the number of free protons at the surface of the earth is small.  Because of these reasons, protons do not typically continue with significant probability to the center of the earth.  They are, however, very important in nuclear reactions and in the effects on our atmosphere as they are projected from the sun along diallel lines.

4.2.3    Behavior of Neutrons

Neutrons travel down the center of the diallel gravitational field lines -- somewhat like they reside at the nucleus of an atom.  They exist in quantum states and their velocities are a function of local density parallel to their movement per equation (1).  Remember, this density can come from any of the force fields and includes the local mass.  Neutrons don't spiral like electrons and protons, but due to their mass, they contribute to the local density and move along a diallel line toward the mass origin of the gravitational field.  They change quantum states as they interact with local conditions.

Even though there are a very small percentage of neutrons penetrating the crust of the earth as compared with electrons, they still play a very important role at the core of the earth.  They can also be generated at the core, which provides important core cooling -- stabilizing the core heating from the balanced continuous fission process on going there, and which is fed by the very large number of electrons, which arrive at the core from the sun.

Generally, in this unified field theory, the neutron is a key player because it helps to  maintain balance.  The neutron could be called the converter as it converts energy from one form into another as it is either created or as it splits.  It, of course, can be split in a nuclear reaction into an electron and a proton with also the emission of a high energy photon. 

In a typical atomic bomb explosion, large amounts of electrons, protons, neutrons and high energy photons are emitted -- along with other atomic particles.  The amount of each depends on the kind of nuclear reaction. Neutron bombs have been designed to emit large amounts of neutrons.  These are much harder to shield against because the neutron has no charge, and the neutrons are high energy.  The principle designed attribute of the neutron bomb is that it will penetrate structures without destroying them, and reach and kill people from the intensity of the radiation. 

4.2.4    Behavior of Photons

Like a light-pipe, when emitted along a diallel path, photons will transmit their energy at the speed of light along that path until reaching a reflecting or refracting boundary or absorbing material.  Photons also contribute to core heating of the earth and the sun.  They also contribute energy in the above equation causing increased density as they travel along diallel lines.

It is well known how photons bend at some boundary according to the change in the index of refraction at that boundary.  The path taken can be exactly calculated according to Fermat's principle (the principle of least action). In other words, nature likes to be most efficient.  This is very analogous in this new unified field theory.  The bending of the diallel gravitational field lines is a function of the density (like the index of refraction) as driven by the energy flow parallel to the diallel lines.  Hence, like light, diallel gravitational field lines can be refracted (focused or defocused), reflected or absorbed.  A black hole is an example of absorption.  In the experimental section, we will see examples of refraction.

Under certain conditions, photon energy can continue through the earth and be reflected as in Tesla's experiment.  He was able to bounce a radio signal off of the other side of the earth and build up the energy density.  His experiment was a very good example of the diallel gravitational field lines working for him as conduits of the RF energy generated.  This is discussed more in the experimental section.

There are some very important experiments to be done in this regard.  It is of particular interest that whales can communicate using ULF frequencies over very large distances utilizing the resonance frequencies of the earth. A frequency of 23.56 Hz has a wave length of one earth diameter.

4.3    Quantum-mechanical Concepts and Diallel Gravitational Field Lines

Although we have not obtained an analytic expression for the new force field on an electron or proton traveling along a diallel gravitational field line, the particle will exist in a quantum state that may be described as a density distribution in a manner analogous to that arising in atomic and molecular physics and leading to so-called electron orbitals. It may be helpful in envisioning the diallel quantum states to consider other physical systems with cylindrical symmetry and having eigenfunction solutions. One such example is the set of modes defining the electromagnetic fields propagating along a circular-cylindrical waveguide. Of special interest are the modal distributions in the case of highly-overmoded waveguides, a situation that may occur when the free-space wavelength of the electromagnetic field is much less than the diameter of the waveguide. Solving the electromagnetic wave equation subject to the appropriate boundary conditions and assuming a waveguide of infinite length yields field expressions given in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind. These functions provide an orthogonal set with which to describe the waveguide modes. The eigenvalues are related to the zeroes of the Bessel functions. The particle density distributions in a diallel-quantum state would be described in terms of a similar set of orthogonal functions. Although a great many electrons could propagate along a diallel line by occupying a multiplicity of quantum states, Fermi-Dirac statistics would limit the number of electrons in each state to two electrons. In addition, just as the electromagnetic field can be circularly polarized (the macroscopic manifestation of the spin quantum number of the associated photons) leading to a spiraling of the field vectors in the circular waveguide, the density distribution of a particle in a diallel-quantum state may also be described as spiraling.

In addition, the force field equations need to be developed for neutrons, photons as well as the other fundamental particles.  Clearly, there is a great amount of work and insight yet to be gained as we press forward in these areas.  Here, we hope our colleagues will bring forth their insights, wisdom and expertise.

5    Experimental Verification of the Theory

5.1    Atomic Bomb Reaction

As generated by man, the development of the atomic bomb gave the first experimental occasion for the four known force fields to be present in one reaction.  These four fields are the gravitational, the electromagnetic and the two nuclear (the weak and the strong as they are called).

A classic illustration of equation (1) is with an atomic bomb explosion. (as illustrated)  The singularity of the rapidly high rising column -- like a mushroom stem -- is very unique.  According to classical theory the blast should go out in all directions.  Instead, it keeps a columnar shape to very high altitudes.  Outside this new unified field theory, none of the current theories give a clear explanation of why this column exists as it does. 

Nuclear Explosions Follow Diallel Lines




Fission or Fusion





This new unified field theory provides a mechanism for a very large number of diallel gravitational-field lines going up from the immediate proximity of the explosion to form the one column.  In the main reaction, the explosion carries matter and charged particles up these diallel lines within this column. Pushing against the resistance of the atmosphere it mushrooms out in the well known fashion.  This is like pushing a chewed on tooth pick against a wall -- making it flare out and fold back on itself.  The main column remains tight in contrast to a non-nuclear (TNT type bomb, for example) where the energy density is not high enough to bring about a focus of the energy along a column; so it dissipates in all directions.  In a TNT blast with sufficient energy this columnar focusing occurs also.

What is not well known, and is predicted by the above theory, is that if the right energy density conditions exist, a quantum transition takes place.  This has been observed in some explosions, that after the column has achieved a certain height, the column collapses inward -- the density increasing as a result of the increased energy. This behavior is predicted according to this new unified field theory.  Heretofore, this phenomena has been unexplained.

As this macroscopic quantum transition takes place with the increased density, a large amount of electromagnetic energy is emitted.  One can notice the crown of the mushroom cloud light more intensely immediately after this collapse of the column.

At the moment of the explosion, a nearly equal amount of energy is emitted downward along the diallel gravitational field lines going to the center of the  earth.  Some of the energy will pass through, but a significant portion will be reflected off of the core and return within about one sixtieth of a second to augment the energy in the explosion itself.  Some of the energy is absorbed -- adding to core heating of the earth.

As the energy builds up in the column, one may often observe at the time the column collapses, with the increased energy-density, that the column will turn black.  This is like a black hole -- with the energy density being so great that light is trapped.  This causes, to a degree, diallel-line absorption.  At the mushroom crown we have a degree of reflection.  Later on, we will see an example of diallel-line refraction.  Often, at the moment of this collapse, one will see light emitted out the top of the column in the mushroom cloud -- which are photons from these quantum transitions occurring during the collapse.

5.2    A Simple Kitchen Experiment -- the magic of an egg

There are many who believe that an unusual feature at the time of an equinox is that one can stand an egg on end and have it remain standing.  This is believed by many people in many lands.  The traditional astronomer believes that there is nothing unique at the periods of the two equinoxes (vernal or autumnal) as to whether an egg has a greater or lesser probability of being stood on its end. The traditional explanation is the rough surface may act like a miniature tripod.  This new theory explains why one can stand an egg on its end at any time of the year.

Because of the 23o tilt of the earth's spin axis, we have the significant event that occurs at the period of the equinoxes.  At this period the earth's spin axis is exactly at right angles with the direction to the sun from the earth.  At this point the diallel gravitational field lines have a nice symmetry for the earth, and there will be minimal distortion from the vertical for these lines at this period.  This means that free electrons in an egg can travel along these vertical diallel field lines and be used in the following way -- perhaps with maximum stability during the equinox period. But the theory predicts that an egg can be stood upright on any day of the year if there are enough free electrons present and the local diallel gravitational field lines are not perturbed from the vertical.

If one takes an egg and stands it on end on a flat surface, if carefully placed, it will remain standing maintained by the free electrons traveling up and down the diallel lines -- most of them reflecting off of the shell of the egg.  With very careful sensing equipment, this electron flow could be measured, which keeps the egg upright.

There is a slight complication in this experiment because an egg is not exactly symmetric about its axis.  The yoke is typically set off to one side, and with different densities between the yoke and the white, or clear portion, this will typically lead to some natural imbalance.  Also, an egg as it ages will have the white pull away from the wall at the end of the egg.  You may have seen this in a boiled egg.  A fresh egg will be fully filled.

The reason the egg is stabilized in the vertical is from the principle of least action (Fermat's Principle).  The electrons flow freely up and down the diallel lines in the egg -- reflecting off of the walls of the egg as a natural boundary.  The longest direction for the diallel lines, and hence the lowest frequency (lowest energy condition), for the electrons' oscillations up and down these diallel lines is when the egg is vertical.  (See the figure)

Figure 3: Egg Stability Energy Diagram from Fermat's Principle

There will be a very weak RF field emitted by the egg as a result of this oscillation.  This frequency will increase when it is laying on its side -- the length to the width dimension of an egg being roughly 5:4.  Such a measurement would provide a direct test of the model for this new theory and of the presence of these gravitational diallel field lines.

The first author, working out of his home, made a significant effort to conduct this experiment scientifically -- using a large variety of chicken eggs: fresh, not fresh, cooked, not cooked, fertilized and unfertilized.  With fine emery paper the ends of some of them were polished to be as round as they reasonably could.  A perturbing environment was selected so that the active servo to keep the egg standing could be studied.  A variety of times both day and night were used to consider all phases of the sun and the moon.  The experiment was started 23 September 1999 in conjunction with the vernal equinox with the intent to carry the experiment through a full quarter -- to the winter solstice.  An extensive set of notes are available on the web site [] around these experiences.  The following is a summary of the major findings.

The perturbation study was fascinating.  A section of kitchen counter over a dishwasher was chosen because of its vibration during the wash cycle and because of the dishwasher door being opened and closed along with a fair amount of bumping of the counter as people used the kitchen sink adjacent to the dishwasher.  Also, significant Fall breezes came through the kitchen and across the standing eggs from time to time.

Some of any of the above listed categories of eggs could be made to stand. Fertilized, fresh eggs seemed to be somewhat easier both to get standing and to remain so.  Smoothly  rounding the end on which the egg stood had little significance.  If the egg were rough on the end, this could work against you or for you.  The greatest variation was from egg to egg.  If an egg wee easy to stand on end -- like within seconds -- then it would tend to be that way over a long period of time.  If an egg were difficult to stand, it would continue to be so, and would tend to topple more easily due to perturbations. Some eggs that could not be made to stand at times could be made to at other times and then sometimes easily.  Others could never be made to stand.

It was not uncommon to see an egg go through a small set of damped oscillations as it would find its point of maximum stability.  Most of the time the eggs would have a slight lean to them due to the imbalanced yoke situation mentioned above.  It was often the case that an egg could be made to stand more readily in a particular orientation.  Once that orientation was found and marked, should the egg be tipped over, it could be made to stand up quite quickly in its preferred orientation.

Often, breezes would come through the kitchen and not topple the eggs.  On one occasion, a strong breeze tipped over two of four.  On another occasion, with two standing, a very strong breeze came through -- blowing the paper towel up in the air that had been placed close by to keep the eggs from rolling on the floor should they tip over.  The one nearest the sink blew over in the direction of the wind.  About a second later, the other fell over into the wind as if it had developed a torque to compensate for the wind and then the wind let up.  Apparently, the response in its internal servo did not have sufficient bandwidth to accommodate this quick change. 

Eggs could never be made to stand on top of a piano.  All different kinds were tried as well as a variety of phases of the moon and sun.  Apparently, the "PIANO WIRES" both interact with and perturb the local diallel gravitational field lines. The wires will conduct electrons from end to end -- much like an egg -- and set up tiny RF fields which could either attract or repel that of the egg.

Some eggs could not be made to stand at certain times, while some hours later they could quite easily be made to stand. There seemed to be preferred times of the day and night when it was easier to stand the eggs.  It seemed to correlate with the phase of the moon and sun -- alignments typically giving the best probability.

Usually, once an egg is made to stand, it will remain for a long time.  One fertilized egg(brown with a large tilt to it) remained standing for more than five weeks until it was hit by a falling cup.  There was some indication that the servo stability improved with time, but if so, only so slightly.  One egg, which stood readily, came to a point where it could not be made to stand at all.

5.3    Core Heating of the Earth

When a nuclear explosion occurs, large amounts of energy (both particle and electromagnetic) are emitted up and down along the diallel gravitational field lines.  We observe the upward energy in the stem of the mushroom cloud, which is formed.  A significant portion of the energy going down is reflected off of the core of the earth, and within a fraction of a second it augments the energy already in the diallel gravitational field line column -- helping to form the stem of the mushroom cloud.  This could well augment the energy density increase causing the stem to collapse inward on itself -- like a black hole.  At this point in the process, the stem often turns black -- emitting no light as it is trapped like in a black hole.

In principle, special sensors configured underneath an explosion, could sense this enormous energy and particle fields emitted downward, but probably nothing could be built, in practice, to withstand the intensity.  Since some of the energy follows the diallel field lines to the other side of the earth, sensing equipment could pick these up, but it still would be quite intense.

The columns emitted upward in the Pacific Ocean for the two thermo-nuclear explosions (nuclear fusion) named Mike and Bravo had some very important features worthy of noting in support of the current theory. (See the figure) These were set off in 1952 and 1954 respectively, and they were the largest explosions ever set off by the USA -- 10.4 Megatons and 15 Megatons, respectively, equivalent of TNT.  Either of these explosions were greater than the accumulated size of all previous nuclear explosions and including all the bombs exploded in all the wars in the history of the earth.

The island in the Atolls where Mike was set off no longer exists and 14 pentagon buildings could be placed in the crater it created.  In both cases, the head of the mushroom cloud -- pushing against the atmosphere -- dispersed outward basically at the high altitude limit for the atmosphere to carry the particulates associated with this gigantic explosion.  Then, the columns penetrated the mushroom clouds, which were at altitudes of about 55,000 feet (17 km), and continued on out into space tightly coupled along the diallel gravitational field lines.  The distance observed for continuation of the column on Bravo was to 130,000 feet (40 km) -- extending far into the stratosphere.  One will note that the column extends to a height above the bottom of the cloud greater than this distance from the earth up to the cloud.

At the same time, a nearly equivalent amount of energy was fed downward to the core of the earth.  This, along with all of the other atomic bomb testing by the USA as well as by all other nations across the earth, has caused a significant amount of core heating and may be the primary reason for the rising of earth temperatures and ocean heating -- having thrown it out of ecological balance.  It is as if the earth has a slight fever.

In 1960, the former Soviet Union set off a 50 Mega-ton hydrogen bomb blast above the atmosphere -- causing no fall out, but an enormous energy impact. This bomb, alone, produced more energy than the accumulated effect of all other bombs ever set off before that date.

There is a mechanism within this new theory which would also explain why the ozone layer could be thinning as a result of this imbalance and the increased energy flow out of the poles of the earth.

5.4    Anti-gravity

As there are anti-particles, so also are there anti-diallel gravitational field lines.  Creating these would counter the effects of gravity.  Hence, in principle, one could build a machine with zero gravitational field in proximity.

As we learn how to focus, generate and control these diallel gravitational field lines, then great utilization can be made of this knowledge.  Later, we will give an example of how diallel gravitational field lines are focused. This will be given in the discussion of "blue jets and red sprites."  Earlier, we discussed how these diallel lines can be absorbed and reflected to a degree.

5.5    Tesla's Earth Pumping Radio-Frequency Experiment

Tesla had the idea to use the round trip time of a radio frequency, RF wave, pumped into the earth.  He apparently understood that this RF wave would follow along a diameter of the earth, and that he could use the earth's shell (along the diameter at which he was located) as a resonator.  This RF wave would reflect off of the other side of the earth and come back to the region of transmission, at which point, he would pump the signal with an additional burst of RF.  Like a child on a swing -- pumping up -- every 1/30 of a second (the round trip time for his RF signal back and forth through the earth) he would pulse the earth again to build up the energy level.

He built a big radio tower for this purpose, and soon almost everything in the town of Colorado Springs was electrified.  He still holds the record for the longest man made lightning bolt of 135 feet.  He kept pulsing the earth until the generator at the power station caught on fire.  This shut him down and turned off the lights for the residents of Colorado Springs!

From classical physics, one may ask, "If the earth is a conducting sphere, why don't the radio waves disperse in all directions according to the multimode conditions of a conducting sphere?  Why do the signals move inside the earth preferentially along a diameter?"  In the new theory the photons, like electrons, tend to follow diallel lines -- hence, the efficiency of Tesla's RF pumping scheme.  This is nicely consistent with this new unified field theory.

5.6    Jumping on a Trampoline

As the body goes up and down, the free electrons tend toward the body's extremities (head and feet), as they interact with the vertical diallel gravitational field lines.  As a result, the electron charge build-up causes the hair to stand on end -- due to electrostatic repulsion.

There are those in the health-improvement community that believe the body's lymphatic system is significantly enhanced in dealing with the body's poisons, by jumping on a rebounder.  The current theory may give some additional reasons for this as the electrons in the lymphatic system may be energized by up and down movement of the body along the diallel lines.

In the body, ionized hydrogen atoms, the quantity of which determine the pH level, play a major role in molecular physiology, such as in determining the healthy replication of DNA molecules.  There is now significant evidence that the healthy (non-carcinogenic) reproduction of DNA molecules has a dependence on the pH level.  Simplistically, this kind of exercise, along with a plant- based diet, helps move the pH basic and can reduce the probability of cancer by 80\%.

At the membrane level, these protons are principal in the healthy function of the body's electrical system.  Because health enhancement has been appreciated by those regularly jumping on rebounders, the current theory may give some explanations as to why this is so.  Certainly, much more study is needed in this area to understand the mechanisms for the benefits observed.

As with the earth, so with people, balance is very important and too many electrons and high levels of electrical interference can create health problems.  It seems that too much of anything is never the best solution.  The earth needs to be in balance as do we in body, mind and spirit.

5.7    An Electron Wheel to measure Diallel Field Lines

For illustrative purposes, imagine two semicircles with the diameters together and with the current circulating in opposite directions in each of the two. Thus, the current would flow in the same direction along the conducting diameter.  If the electrons could be made to bind to the diallel lines, then they would be spaced in bundles associated with each line along the diameter - - the diameter being at right angles to these lines.  Bound by the quantum forces, these bundles of electrons would move with the diallel lines.  The return current in each of the semicircles would be moving rapidly across the diallel lines if, for example, the diameter is crossing the diallel lines as in a satellite.

If an oscillator could be designed to both sense these pulses and to balance their movement in order to overcome the resistance in the semicircle loops, then this oscillator's frequency would be locked to the frequency of passage of the diallel lines.  This would be like a space odometer.  If this oscillator could be locked with no slips, this could, in principle, precisely map the number of the diallel lines.

Against a good reference-frequency standard, this could yield very precise information about the mass density of the earth as the density of these lines changes with the mass density from which they originate.  This could allow fine detailed measurements of changes in these diallel lines due to sub-earth surface activities -- volcanic, and otherwise.  This may also allow a greatly improved estimate of the higher-order moments of the earth's gravitational field.  Mapping super-earth changes in diallel lines could result from energy- density changes due to weather storm systems or other man-made activities.

On the surface of the earth, a highly precise diallel odometer could be compared with an accurate distance device -- noting changes on an arc along the face of the earth.  Studies along an earthquake fault may allow the monitoring of stress build up and earth quake prediction.  The latter is not able to be done with any level of confidence at this time.

If the diameters in this electron wheel were a plate, orthogonal to the diallel lines, with sensors for counting the pulses at the edge of the plate, this would increase the efficiency and the information.  The counter-rotating loops are necessary to add to zero the EMF contributed by local DC magnetic fields, and these fields need to be nominally homogeneous for adequate cancellation of their force effects on the electrons.  These loops should probably be made as small as possible to minimize their cross-sectional area. In a sophisticated system, the local magnetic fields could be sensed, and the two loops adjusted to obtain complete cancellation of magnetic field forces on the electrons.

At GPS orbits, the estimated frequency of the local oscillator would be about 200 MHz.  This seems to be a very do-able experiment.  It could be done in the space shuttle. 

Since the diallel field line spacing can be influenced by the energy fields coming from any of all the sources, this instrument would be very sensitive to those changes.  This proposed instrument would be very useful in designing an anti-gravity machine -- providing a measurement of one's ability to control and utilize the diallel gravitational field lines.

In the above, we have assumed that the spacing of the diallel field lines at the surface of the earth is about 10 micrometers.  The first author's experience with standing numerous eggs is consistent with this value as one observes the locking range of the egg's built-in servo for causing it to stand on end.

5.8    Aurora Borealis and the Earth's Magnetic Field

Quoting from the book Solar System Astrophysics by Brandt and Hodge (p406), "The displays of Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis have excited the imagination of men for many years.  Considerable observational and theoretical effort has been devoted to the solution of the auroral problem, but essential understanding is yet to come."  Though this book is copyright 1964, and much has been learned since then, still this field of research has many mysteries and unexplained phenomena.

The Aurora Borealis is a good example of atmospheric conditions being in the correct alignment to see radiation in the visible from the high-energy electrons following diallel lines and causing atmospheric molecules to move to an excited energy state -- after which they emit in the visible, which we see.

The center of the velocity distribution of electrons from the sun is about 1.2 Mm/s (2.7 million MPH or about 0.4 percent of the velocity of light). Capturing this much energy in the form of an excited electron decaying and radiating a photon yields a photon with a frequency of about 1 X 1015 Hz. This is in the near ultraviolet region of the spectrum.  The width of the velocity distribution would produce transitions both in the optical and further into the ultraviolet.

This new unified field theory would predict a congruent set of spectral lines in the ultra violet corresponding to each of the lines in the visible because of the allowed quantum states of these spiraling electrons.  This congruency occurs symmetrically on either side of approximately the above UV frequency for the following reasons.  As the electrons come into the North Pole of the earth, the spiraling direction caused by the magnetic field and the diallel gravitational field lines are both clockwise with, of course, the gravitational force vector being downward.  This moves the electrons into a higher set of quantum states than after the electron is reflected back up.  As the electron is slowed down in the converging magnetic field lines it radiates in a set of lines in the UV region of the spectrum.  When these electrons are reflected -- going away from the earth -- this moves the electrons into a lower set of quantum states, which causes the electrons as they undergo transitions with their acceleration in the magnetic field to radiate in the visible, which is what we see. These UV photons could be measured with special spectral analysis equipment and have been observed on Saturn with a UV camera on the Hubble telescope.

This new theory also explains why the aurora are much stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern.  Since the spin direction of an electron coming into the North magnetic pole along a magnetic field line is clockwise and is complemented by the spin direction due to the diallel gravitational field lines, there is an augmentation in the Northern Hemisphere of the earth for those higher-energy electrons reaching the earth and being conducted through the center.  On the other hand, there is some cancellation in the Southern Hemisphere.  That is, the electron's spin is counter-clockwise coming into the south magnetic pole, while they want to spin clockwise due to the diallel gravitational field lines.  This then results in a resistance at the south magnetic pole.  The net is a flow of electrons from the North to the South Poles of the earth.  This then sustains the magnetic field of the earth. Since most of the interaction of the diallel lines and the magnetic field lines occur near the poles, this has negligible effect on humanity.

5.9    Liquid Nitrogen simulation of Aurora Borealis

One can simulate the Aurora Borealis by simulating the North Pole with a magnetic field -- divergent in nature as at the North Pole -- going through a container of liquid nitrogen and the vapor that forms above it.  This vapor acts like the atmosphere for the northern lights to reflect off of as we see the visible variable lines as they play across the sky.

Proposed Aurora simulation experiment

Aurora Borealis Simulation
for the Earth

Emitting electrons from above the container at the right velocity downward toward the liquid nitrogen, which will then follow diallel gravitational field lines' as well as the convergent magnetic field lines, will bring about the simulation.  These electrons will spiral clockwise as they interact with the magnetic field and with the diallel gravitational field quantum states.

As the electrons lose momentum -- being decelerated by the convergent magnetic field -- they will undergo quantum transitions in the UV region of the spectrum.  As they are reflected back up the magnetic field lines, they will undergo transitions in a congruent set of quantum states in the visible region of the spectrum -- giving rise to the radiated colors observed in Aurora Borealis.

The right velocity for the electron emission will be dependent on the convergence and the strength of the magnetic field chosen for the experiment. Since such a simulation will be a microscopic simulation of the North Magnetic Pole, some calculations will help to determine a proper range for this electron emission velocity.

5.10    Blue Jets, Red Sprites and Elfs

This relatively new area of research provides a fascinating confirmation and model for this new unified field theory.  Blue jets, red sprites and Elfs are prone to occur above high-intensity thunder storms. (see the 1994 artist's drawing)  

A burst of electrons is emitted from a high-energy field in a thunderstorm and spews off into space following definite lines.  It achieves heights approaching 80 km in less than a second.  Velocities of Mach 300 have been measured.  The blue jets occur first above the clouds and are not always observed.  Above the blue jets, toward the top of the burst, the red sprites, as they have come to be called, are formed.  The elfs are doughnut rings of electromagnetic radiation going out horizontally, but above the storm system, at the time of the burst.

From the new theory, we understand that the energy-density field in the highly energetic storm system acts a little bit like a lens for the diallel gravitational field lines.  This is like a ray of light hitting a lens; the light is refracted and bent according to the principle of least action.  This principle, as has been demonstrated for standing eggs, works for diallel lines as well causing them to be bent at boundaries where there are changes in the energy-density field.

The attached image shows a spectacular and classic example of this lensing effect as the blue jets focus electrons along the diallel gravitational field lines of this cone-shaped burst of energy -- mimicking an optical lens to some degree.  There is a very high energy build-up in the thundercloud storm system where these blue jets originate.  As these electrons burst off into space along diallel lines which have been focused by this energy-density field lens, electromagnetic energy is emitted at right angels (called elfs) -- forming an outward going doughnut.  These photons will likely be polarized as they come from a quantum emission from this energy-density lens.  These elfs are somewhat like the lateral energy release at the time of a nuclear explosion. In fact, the elfs, blue jets and red sprites are like a miniature nuclear explosion, but in a different part of the spectrum as to emissions and colors -- different set of quantum states for the diallel field lines as a result of the much lower energy density.

The velocity and focused energy of the electrons is such that they emit in the blue.  As this blue photon energy is bled off of this cone, when the cone gets small enough the system transitions to a lower quantum state -- setting up a new energy-density lens at the top of the blue cone.  This in turn brings about a focusing of other free electrons which have also been emitted from this thunder-storm cloud's energy release.  All of these then combine to form a new red cone emitting in the red part of the spectrum at a lower energy level.  The new theory predicts the possibility of another transition at the top of the "Red Sprite," which cause the electrons to emit photons in the infrared, which haven't been photographed to date -- not anticipating this phenomena.

5.11    Sunspot Activity, Magnetic Fields and Planetary Positions

According to equation (1) above the flow of electrons from the sun to the planets will be a function of energy density presented by the planets to the sun.  The sun is the source, the planets the sink for this electron flow. When in balance, this electron flow is like food to the earth -- bringing about the balance of nature most desirable for life.

At the core of the sun is a sustained nuclear fusion process, which is influenced by the electron flow.  As the electron flow increases, the energy released in thermo-nuclear fusion increases, and some of this energy propagates readily along the diallel gravitational field lines of the sun to its surface -- triggering the sunspot activity where nuclear fission and numerous other molecular and chemical processes take place.  These processes also contribute directly to electron emission from the sun.  The ionosphere of the earth, for example, is impacted directly by the solar activity at the surface of the sun.

The conductance to electrons presented by the planets mainly draws electrons from the sun along its magnetic spin axis, but also accepts electron emitted by the sun's surface.  This is because the flow is a direct function of the energy-density per equation (1), and hence where there is the highest concentration of diallel field lines for this conductance.

Both the magnetic field of a planet as well as its energy density at the core will be key contributors to the conductance presented.  Since the direction of spiraling for the electrons is the same for the diallel gravitational field lines as for the north magnetic field lines, the presentation of the north magnetic pole causes a greater attraction of electrons than the presentation of the south magnetic pole to the sun.  Hence, the seasons of the planets are important to this electron flow, as are the spin tilt axes, as well as their position in their inclined orbital plane.  A highly non-linear situation exists here because the flow of electrons directly affects the magnetic field while the magnetic field affects the attraction of electrons from the sun.  In addition, the electron flow through a planet affects the fission process at the center for those that have this process taking place.

The solar magnetic field has reversed direction about every 11 years -- nominally synchronous with the sunspot cycle.  So the north magnetic pole of the sun has repeated about every 22 years -- at least in the recent recorded past.  The period of 22 years is by no means precise, and solar maxima have not been well predicted to much better than about a year out of the 11 year half cycle (a solar maximum occurs once per half cycle).  Barnes, in fact, has shown that the solar activity can be well modeled as narrow-band filtered noise, which is completely consistent with this new unified field theory. [ref Dr. James A. Barnes] In other words, the peaks and valleys of the solar cycle vary greatly in magnitude and duration from cycle to cycle as they depend on the position and tilt of each planet and its conductance presented for this electron flow.

Given the significant amount of variability, this new theory provides a plausible driving mechanism for the reversal of the  magnetic poles of the sun as well as for the magnitude and duration of the solar activity level. Furthermore, it can lead to much better predictability of not only the solar maxima, but also of their duration and magnitude.  In addition, this theory gives rise for a mechanism for the magnetic field of the planets to change and reverse.

The explanation is as follows: the position of the planets in the solar system with respect to each other and with respect to the sun determine the flow of electrons along the diallel lines.  It is like having paths of conductivity and resistivity for the solar emissions as the planets move with respect to the spin axis of the sun.  Here, we have to account for both the tilt angle of the planets as well as their orbital planes as we look at conductivity and resistivity for emission electron paths.  The sun is the source, the planets are the sinks and their parallel augmentation directly affects the effective conductivity -- hence the flow (quantity) of electrons.

As an illustrative example, the periods of the planets and their harmonic relationship to the period of the solar sunspot cycle are shown in the following table.

Planets' Periods and Ratio to Solar Magnetic Cycle

Planet Period Ratio
88 days
224.7 days
1.0 year
1.88 years
11.86 years
29.46 years
84.01 years
164.8 years
Harmonic Relationship between Planets' Periods
and Solar Magnetic Cycle

In general terms, we see these integer harmonic relationships between the main planet periods and the solar magnetic period of 22 years.  The inference is that 22 years is in a harmonic relationship with the periods of the planets. According to our new unified field theory the electron flow in the solar system along diallel gravitational field lines will be impacted directly by these harmonic relationships as the planets increase and decrease their susceptibility to electrons from the sun -- since it is the source.  This will then cause a repeat in the direction of electron flow through the center of the sun with a 22 year period.  The planets being nominally out of phase on the 11 year half cycle will induce a reversal of the magnetic field.

All of the gas-giant planets plus the earth have significant magnetic fields. Aurora have been observed on Jupiter and Saturn.  These magnetic fields increase the electron receptivity of these planets, and they are principal in their harmonic relationships with the solar magnetic cycle.  Here the A2 term in equation (1) becomes very important as we consider energy flow (electrons especially) along parallel diallel gravitational-field lines as a pair of planets with significant magnetic fields comes into alignment with the sun.

Using the software developed by William Riley for characterizing the performance of the clocks used in the Global Positioning System (GPS), all of the recorded sunspot activity data were analyzed to look for planetary resonances (see the "FREQUENCY STABILITY" of "totalssn.txt" figure). As one looks at the plot, one sees peaks and valleys for sigma -- the frequency stability.  Sigma minimum values (valleys) can occur when J (tau) is equal to the period (1/frequency) of a periodic phenomena that is present in the data. The first major minimum corresponds to 10 times the orbit period of the Earth, 5 times the orbit period of Mars, and to the orbit period of Jupiter.  The second minimum corresponds to the 22 year period of the sunspot cycle.  The third minimum corresponds to the orbit period of Saturn.  The J values are not long enough to detect the orbit periods of Uranus and Neptune.  If one studies the stability data in detail, very slight minima occur at the orbit period J values for the Earth and Mercury.

Since the periods, Ji, of the planets are well known, one can form the following equation as a model for the magnetic field conductance for the ith planet:

Ci = Ai cos(2Bt/Ti + Bi) *

*" B" should read "pi"

All the planets except Mercury, Venus and Pluto seemed to have significant magnetic coefficients.  According to equation (1) the value of Bi should correspond with north-magnetic pole solstice for a planet, in other words, when the north-magnetic pole is facing the sun to the greatest extent.  This was tested for the Earth, Jupiter and Saturn and the average agreed to about 1 percent of a cycle with a standard deviation of 15 percent.  Like the sun, the data give evidence that the magnetic poles of Jupiter and Saturn are also changing.  It appears that Saturn's field has changed this century and Jupiter's is changing slowly.  Currently, the magnetic field direction for Jupiter and Saturn are opposite that of the Earth, and Jupiter's is slowly increasing.

Because of the highly non-linear nature of the conductance causing the electron flow from the sun, frequency differences are also present in the data.  It seems that the principle term in the sunspot cycle is due to the difference (or beat) frequency between the changing magnetic field of Jupiter and Jupiter's orbit frequency.

Again according to equation(1), the parallel portion given by the equation shows itself in a fundamental way as a pair of planets line up with the sun. This occurs frequently and adds significantly to the electron flow from the sun and hence in the model for the sunspot activity.  For example, the big sunspot peak around 1960 corresponds almost exactly with the alignment of Jupiter and Neptune.  Since Jupiter's magnetic field appears to be increasing, which is consistent with the two sets of Voyager data, the magnetic field of Neptune must be decreasing -- to explain the sunspot data observed.

A model was developed using the planetary data as an estimate of the driving mechanism for the sunspot data.  The actual and the model of the sunspot data are shown in the figure for this century.  The model is projected through the year 2,000. (See the figure)

5.12    Alignment of the Planets, 5 May 2000

There has been a lot of discussion about the coming nominal alignment of the planets, which reaches its best alignment about 3 May 2000.  The last time such an alignment occurred is estimated to have been 6,000 years ago.  This is misleading and not correct.  Classical gravitational theory predicts a small and relatively insignificant impact on earth tides and weather patterns from this alignment.  The figure shows the relative position of the planets during this early May 2000 alignment.

From this new unified field theory, the principal issue is the alignment of Jupiter and Saturn, which actually occurs about 13 June 2000.  Numerous similar alignments have taken place during this century.  That Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are in somewhat close alignment is not of great significance, because equation(1) requires them to much closer than they will be at this time.  The parallel part of equation(1) tells us that the closer the alignment the more significant is the effect on the energy-density.

However, as one can see from the general model, this new theory does predict the sunspot activity to continue increasing throughout the year 2000.  The resulting excess electron flow along with the extra core heating of the Earth due to the accumulated effects of all the nuclear bomb testing activity integrated since the 1940s and onward give rise to excess earth-core heating and with some thinning of the earth's crust -- causing an increase in the probability of earth quakes, and increased weather activity.  During this time the Aurora Borealis for the earth could become very large.  This could also be true for Jupiter and Saturn.

Fortunately, the Earth will be on the opposite side of the sun from the other aligned planets. The principle conductivity path will then be away from us and toward the planets on the other side of the sun.  If the earth were in that path, it would be party to this heavy electron flow.   Then things could be much more intense.  But being on the opposite side gives to us the secondary effect of a maximum build up of the sunspot activity.  This will also significantly impact our ionosphere, which secondarily could affect communications and space probes.

5.13    Solution to a Space Mystery

John Anderson and colleagues of NASA JPL, experts in the determination of space-craft position, have published discrepancies observed in the locations of Pioneer I, Pioneer II and of the Ulysses solar probe.  To date the discrepancies in the data cannot be fully explained.  They have raised the question as to whether there is a fundamental problem in our understanding of gravity or time.  The space vehicles exhibit a pull toward the sun greater than current theory would predict.

Equation (1) explains why additional "tug" toward the sun occurs.  Each of the vehicles has an RTG plutonium-powered nuclear reactor for the generation of local power.  This increases significantly the energy-density for the vehicle and causes a focusing of gravitational diallel field lines from the sun -- resulting in an extra gravitational pull.  The effect is small, but measurable.

An experiment could be conducted on the earth to validate this hypothesis. One of these RTGs could be placed on a sensitive balance scale.  According to this new theory, its weight will be slightly greater when turned on than when off.  Perhaps an even simpler experiment could be conducted by taking a high energy transformer and placing it on a sensitive balance with an appropriate load to pull the energy through the transformer.  When the transformer is fed power, it should weigh slightly more than when off.

One could also see this effect in proximity of electric-power stations.  The diallel gravitational field lines will again be distorted slightly because of the high energy density in the very large transformers associated with these stations.  If one could place a plumb-bob at various positions over the top of one of these power stations, perturbations in local verticals would be observed.

An additional experiment would be to place a pendulum over one of these stations.  Its period could be measured with a laser and a corner reflector on the bob.  The pendulum would tend to speed up slightly in the presence of the increased density of the diallel field lines immediately over the transformer substation.  It would also tend to swing asymmetrically when located away from the center of the substation and far enough away to not be disturbed by it.




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